Although the localization of ulcers in most cases is located in the folds of the intestine, cases of damage are known: appendix, as a result of which a purulent process developed and subsequent necrosis of the appendix; small intestine; hepatic tissue; heart muscle.
Both acute and chronic forms of balantidiasis can proceed according to the type: dysentery, in which there is a fetid, bloody-mucous diarrhea; colitis, in which there is an admixture of mucus in the semi-liquid feces, but almost always there is no blood.
There may be a false urge to defecate. The conducted sigmoidoscopy reveals the presence of a focal infiltrative-ulcerative process. There may be symptoms of peritoneal irritation. Sigmoidoscopy can detect extensive ulcerative lesions.
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The incubation period is 5-30 days (in most cases about 2 weeks). Chronic balantidiasis occurs at normal temperature and mild signs of intoxication.Defecation occurs 2-3 times a day, the stool is liquid. There is pain on palpation, mainly in the region of the caecum and ascending colon. Sigmoidoscopy reveals typical ulcerative changes. Balantidiasis, even in its acute form, can occur without an increase in body temperature, and complications are quite rare.
Laboratory diagnosis of balantidiasis may include blood tests that reveal mild anemia, eosinophilia, a moderate increase in ESR, and a reduced amount of protein and albumin.span>
Allows using a small magnification of the microscope to detect fairly fast moving vegetative forms of balantidia. For a detailed examination of ciliates, excess fluid is sucked out of the preparation and a smear is examined at high magnification. Examination of a smear in preparations stained according to Heidenhain. The main features of the balantidia, which are clearly visible at low magnification of the microscope, are the characteristic oval shape of ciliates and the presence of a dark-colored bean-shaped macronucleus (vegetative nucleus) inside the cytoplasm. Cultivation of balantidia in Rice's medium.
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